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Data Types - Screening and Risk Factors

Direct Estimates are the usual estimates reported from a survey–directly estimated from the survey data using appropriate weighting. Most of these direct estimates are based on data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS), a large annual telephone survey of U.S. households designed to measure at the state level.

Bias-Adjusted Modeled Estimates combine results from BRFSS and the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), a smaller, in-person survey, using a statistical model that takes advantage of the strengths of each survey. These estimates:
See http://sae.cancer.gov for more details.

Summary of Available Statistics by Data Type

 Direct EstimatesBias-Adjusted Modeled Estimates
  • States
  • US
  • Counties
  • States
  • US
Time Period
  • Most current single year
  • Pooled years
  • BRFSS (or CPS or ANR*)
  • BRFSS and NHIS combined
Topics Available
  • Clinical Breast Exam
  • Fruit/Vegetable Servings
  • Home Blood Stool Test
  • Mammogram
  • Overweight or Obese
  • Pap Smear
  • Physical Activity
  • Signmoidoscopy or Colonoscopy
  • Smokers
  • Smoking Not Allowed and Smoking Laws (not based on BRFSS*)
  • Mammogram
  • Pap Smear
  • Smokers
  • Telephone-only survey method introduces bias and inaccuracies (greater for some statistics than for others)
  • Depending on the local sample rate, estimates for small areas may not reflect local factors (such as a media campaign to promote mammograms)

* Smoking Not Allowed measures are direct estimates and are from the Current Population Survey (CPS) Tobacco Use Supplement. The data for Smoking Laws come from Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights (ANR) and are based on analysis of laws across the country.


Bias-Adjusted Modeled Estimates (Small Area Estimates), National Cancer Institute
Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Health Interview Survey, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement, National Cancer Institute and U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Tobacco Control Laws Database©, Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights Foundation
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